It has been more than a decade since the e-ID card project was initiated
in Afghanistan in 2009. A number of related bills have been drafted, debated, and even adopted and then amended. However, until very recently, the government was not able to issue the e-ID cards due to the rise
of communal tensions over the inclusion of national, ethnic and less
so religious affiliations. Both proponents and opponents of each
category have picked a few national ID cards to suggest that what they advocate for is universally accepted across nations. To examine their claims, this article explores national identity cards of 134 states. Explaining the consequences of adopting these categories in different national identity cards, this article also reveals why some countries have included or dropped these categories subsequently from their ID cards.
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